General Knowledge: Tughlaq Dynasty 1320 – 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq killed the Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji dynasty and ascended the throne Tughlaq Empire. His other name was Ghazi Malik. This dynasty is also known as the dynasty of Qaraunah Turks as the father of Ghiyasuddin was Qaraunah Turk.
Mohammad-bin Tughlaq: 1325 – 1351
The real name of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq was Jauna khan. He succeeded his father Ghiyasuddin and ascended the throne in 1325. He was one of the famous kings of Delhi Sultanate. He has been referred to as an ‘Ill-Starred Idealist‘ in Indian history because of his five ambitious projects and that’s why he becomes particularly debatable. His experiments generally ended with failure. His five ambitious projects are,-
1. Land revenue increased in Doab :
In this project, Mohammad-bin Tughlaq increased the land revenue in the Doab, between Ganga and Yamuna. But this time peasants refused to acquiesce and rebelled. He was successful in suppressed the rebel but the land revenue policy had to be revised.
2. Transfer of Capital:
Mohammad-bin Tughlaq also decided to move his capital from Delhi to Devagiri. This project was his most controversial step. For better administration of the newly conquered provinces in south India, he had taken this bold step. But his plan ended in failure because it was almost become impossible to keep watch on northern India.
3. Introduction of token currency:
He decided to introduce token currency made of copper which had the same value as silver and gold coins. However, very few people exchanged their gold of silver coin for new copper ones. Mohammad-bin Tughlaq mighty has solved some of his financial problems if he could prevent people from forging the new coins. Finally, he decided to withdraw the token currency.
4. Khurasan Expedition:
His political ambition was to extend his empire beyond India, into Khurasan and Iraq of Central Asia. To do so he tried to build a huge army but it has become difficult to meet the expanses of maintaining this large army. At last, the scheme was abandoned
5. Qurachil Expedition:
The plan for the conquest of Qurachil also met with a disastrous end.
Ibn Batuta, the famous Moroccan traveler came to Delhi during his reign. He recorded the contemporary Indian status in his ‘Safarnamah‘ also called Rehla in Arabic language.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1351-1388:
Firoz Shah Tughlaq was a cousin of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq. After Mohammad’s death, the nobles and theologians at the court selected Firoz Shah as the next sultan. He tried to appease everybody and cancel the loan of peasants. The government prohibited the infliction of the death penalty or torture, which was known as Siyasat.
Read more; Gupta Dynasty – General Knowledge
He constructed four canals for the irrigation facility. Therefore the agriculture was developed at his time. He regulated the following taxes
A land tax equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land known as Kharaj.
A tax by non-Muslim –Jiziya.
Tax on property at 2.5% by Muslim only – Zakat.
1/5th of booty captured in war –Khams.
To build his capital at Firozabad and beautify he brought two Ashoka pillars from Ambala and Meerut. A new department of Diwan-i-Khairat was set up to make provisions for the marriage of poor girls.