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Plant Tissues GK-Notes PDF

Plant Tissue – GK Notes PDF

Plant Tissues GK Notes

Plant Tissue general knowledge notes help you to prepare for any kind of government examinations such as Railway, Banking, IAS, UPSC, Defence, SSC, CGL, MTS, Police, Army, Group D, etc.

What is tissue?

A tissue is a combination of similar cells performing a particular operation in a body.

Most plants and creatures have a tissue framework. The human body, for instance, has epithelial tissue covering the skin. In a plant, the conduction tissue conducts water upwards from the dirt to the aeronautical parts and nourishment arranged from the leaves to the lower parts.

Type of Plant Tissues:

Basically there are two types of plant tissue

  1. Meristematic tissue
  2. Permanent Tissue

Meristematic Tissue:

  • It is also known as Meristem.
  • It is found in all developing portions of a plant, for example, stem, branches and the tips of roots. Likewise, present between the bark and the wood of trees.

Main characteristics of Meristematic tissue.

  • Cells are small in size.
  • Cells are generally cubical in shape.
  • Having a thin cell wall.
  • Having large nuclei.
  • Almost no Vacuoles present.
  • Almost no intercellular spaces, so, cells are tightly packed.
  • Contribute new cells by dividing itself.

There are two classifications of meristematic tissue, one is Apical meristem and another is Cambium or lateral meristem.

Apical tissue: Located near the tip of roots and stem. They help to grow young leaves near the tips of stems and axillary buds.

Cambium Tissue: Located below the bark. It helps to increase the diameter of the stem.

Permanent Tissue:

They do not have the ability to divide itself and create new tissues. Also, their shape is permanent and has some particular function. They are also classified into three types – Protective tissue, Supporting tissue and Conducting tissue.

Protective Tissue:

  • They have thick walls.
  • Mostly found on the surface of roots, stems, and leaves.

Examples: Epidermis of leaves and Cork cells

Supporting Tissue:

As the name suggests, they support the internal framework of the body. Mainly they are of three types:

  • Parenchyma
  • Collenchyma
  • Sclerenchyma

Characteristics of Parenchyma tissue

The main characteristics of Parenchyma tissues are –

  • Cells have thin walls.
  • Cells may be oval, circular or polygonal.
  • A single large vacuole is present in the soft part like in the cortex and pith.
  • Food may be stored inside the tissue. Example: Potato.
  • Their role is to provide temporary support to the plant.

Note: When the Parenchyma cells present outside the body parts such as in leaf, they term green in color to photosynthesis, and as a result, it helps to create food. That’s why they are sometimes called Chlorenchyma.

Characteristics of Collenchyma Tissue:

The main characteristics of Collenchyma Tissue are –

  • Tissues are made up of elongated cells.
  • The cell wall is thickened at the corners.
  • Found in the leaf stalks and bellow the epidermis of stems.
  • Thy helps to support the different parts of the plants.

Characteristics of Sclerenchyma Tissue

The principle characteristics of sclerenchyma tissue are –

  • Tissues are made up of narrow dead cells. Due to the disposition of lignin, these dead cells produce very thick walls.
  • Usually found at stems and veins of leaves.
  • Their main function is to provide strength to the body parts of plants.

Characteristics of Conducting Tissue

The prior characteristics of conducting tissues are –

  • They are divided into two types, Xylem and Phloem
  • Their function is to provide a passage for water to various parts of the plants.
  • They also dissolve minerals and other materials.

Xylem Tissue

  • Xylem tissues have elongated and thick walls.
  • Some extent they are in the form of tubular passages.
  • They dissolve minerals from the soil with water and helps it to move upward to reach other parts.
  • Xylem tissues which are old, do not take part in transportation and become wood.
  • Xylem consists of Tracheids and xylem parenchyma.

Tracheae: It is long in structure and used mainly for transportation purposes. The cell walls of tracheae are very hard and thick. It acts as a transportation pipe to carry water.

Xylem Parenchyma: The alive cells associated with xylem make this tissue. The food made by photosynthesis is stored in these cells as starch and sugars. Sometimes, they also help to transport mineral dissolved water to other parts of the plants.

Phloem Tissue:

  • The food prepared by photosynthesis, Phloem tissues help to move it to the downward direction inside the plants.
  • Not only that, but they also move the prepared food to the various parts of the newly grown parts of the plants such as new leaves.
  • It consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma cells, and phloem fibers.

Seive Tubes: Seive tubes are mainly made by elongated cells. They are arranged end to end to form a long tube. The main function is to transport food to the storage cells.

Companion Cells: Their function is to help seive tubes. They are placed near to the alive parenchyma cells.

Phloem parenchyma: Their main function is to store food as starch, fat, and protein.

Phloem Fibres: Their function is to provide support to the other phloem tissues.

Note: Xylem and Phloem tissues are collectively known as complex tissues. The vascular bundle is formed by the joint venture of Xylem and Phloem. One example of vascular bundle is the veins of leaves.

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