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Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shahjahan Aurangzeb

Mughal Empire – GK + Study Notes [PDF]


Important Points on Mughal Empire and Study Notes

  1. Babur
  2. Humayun
  3. Akbar
  4. Jahangir
  5. Shahjahan
  6. Aurangzeb

Here are some important notes and points on Mughal Empire for your various upcoming competitive examinations. Mughals were the important kings of the Delhi sultanate.

Babur: (1525 – 1530)

Babur became the sultan at the age of 12 after his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died. He originally formed Turki and his family belongs to Mughal. Daulat Khan Lodhi, Alam Khan, and Rana Sanga invited Babur to attack India. He was descended of Timur from his father’s side and Chengiz Khan from his mother’s side.

In the first battle of Panipat, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi on April 21, 1526, and established Mughal Dynasty. He also defeated Mewar king Ranga Sanga in 1527 and Chaneri king Medini Rai in 1828.

Babur wrote an autobiography called Tuzuk-i-Baburi in which he gave an excellent description of India. He died in 1530 and his tomb is at Kabul.

Some Important Battle won by Babur

 Year  Against  Place
 1527  Rana Sanga or Rana Pratap Sing of Mewar  Khanwa
 1528  Medini Rai of Chanderi  Chanderi
 1529  Muhammad Lodhi, Uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi  Ghaghra

Humayun: 1530 – 1540)

Humayun was the son of Babur. He ascended the throne of the Mughal Empire in 1530.

He defeated Sher Shah at the battle of Chausa in 1529. But in the battle of Kannauj/Bilgram in 1540, he escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years. After that, he invaded India in 1555 and defeated his Afghans brothers and became the ruler of India again.

Humayun succeeded in conquering the provinces of Gujarat and Malwa and remain successful to eliminate the threat of Bahadur Shah. However, he failed to consolidate his power in western India.

Akbar: (1556 – 1605)

Akbar was the eldest son of Humayun. He has ascended the throne in 1556 at the age of 15. He took the title Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. He defeated Hemu, the Hindu king of Muhammad Adil Shah in the second battle of Panipat. After this war, he occupied Delhi and Agra. His regent name was Bairam Khan. Akbar ended the regency and proceeded to conquer various important towns like Gwalior, Ajmer, and Jaunpur. He defeated Rana Pratap Singh in the battle of Haldighati in 1576. Akbar proclaimed a new religion ‘Din-i-Ilahi‘ in 1581 to revolt against the orthodoxy. Birbal was the first Hindu who followed this religion. Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Lahore Fort, and Allahabad Fort. He also made Humayun’s tomb at Delhi. He also abolished pilgrimage tax and Jizya practice from the social. he also introduced the ‘Mansabdari system‘ to organize nobility as well as the army.

Navaratna or Nine Jewels of Akbar:

  1. Birbal – Administrator of nine Jewels

  2. Abul Fazl – Scholar and statesman.

  3. faizi –  Scholar, statesman, teacher and poet

  4. Tansen – Great musician.

  5. Todaram – finance Minister, Dahsala Bandobast

  6. Raja Man Singh – Mansabdar

  7. Bhawandas – Mansabdar

  8. Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana – Statesman, Hindi poet

  9. Mullah do piaza – Regarded his advice in high esteem.


Tulsidas who wrote Ramcharitmanas also contemporary to Akbar. He was buried at Sikandra near Agra after his death. He used Persian as an official language in India.

Jahangir: ( 1605 – 1627)

Jahangir was the eldest son of Akbar. His original name was Salim. He came to the throne after Akbar’s death in 1605. Captain Hawkins from East-India Company came to his court in 1608. Jahangir gives him the title ‘English Khan‘. After that Sir Thomas Roe from England came to India and got permission to build a port in Surat. He wrote his memories in ‘Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri‘ in the Persian language.

Shahjahan: (1628 – 1658)

Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 and became popular for his good Deccan and foreign policies. He had to face revolts in Bundelkhand and Deccan in the very first year. He built Taj Mahal to perpetuate the memory of his wife Mumtaj. he built some magnificent structures such as Red Fort, Jama Masjid. Shah Jahan’s last eight years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war among his four sons, Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb, and Murad. His reign considered the ‘Golden Age‘ of the Mughal Empire.

Aurangzeb: (1658 – 1707)

Aurangzeb imprisoned Shahjahan and ascended the throne in 1658. He ruled for almost 50 years. During his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its territorial climax. His reign can be divided into two 25 years periods. During his first 25 years of rule, he ruled over North India. At this time Maratha power under Shivaji emerged and was a force of reckoning with. Aurangzeb executed Guru Teg Bahadur, who was the 9th Guru of Sikhs who refused to embrace Islam. During his reign, Aurangzeb ban on Sati custom, Hindu Festivals, Jharokha darshan, weighing of the emperor, etc. He also reintroduced of Jizya.

The last Mughal king was Bahadur Shah-II who was made a premise during 1867 revolts.

Important Titles given by Mughal Rulers

 Title  To Whom Given  Given By
 Jagat Guru  Hari Vijay Suri  Akbar
 Raj Davi  Faizi  Akbar
 Kavi Priya  Faizi  Akbar
 Guna Samudra  Lal Khan  Shahjahan
 Raj Kavi  Kalim  Shahjahan

Important Literature of Mughal Empire

 Books  Author
 Tuzuk-i-Baburi  Babur
 Humayun Nama  Gulbadan Begum
 Akbar Nama  Abul Fazl
 Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri  Jahangir
 Ain-i-Akbari  Abul Fazl
 Shahjahan Namah  Muhammad Salih

Mughal Buildings:

Babur: Build two mosques at Kabuli Bagh in Panipat and in Sambal.

Humayun: Founder of city Din Panah at Delhi, Jamali Mosque, Isa Khan Mosque at Delhi.

Akbar: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri at Agra.

Jahangir: Moti Masjid at Lahore, Shalimar Bagh at Srinagar.

Shahjahan: Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid, Red Fort at Delhi.

Aurangzeb: Moti Masjid at Delhi, Badshahi Mosque at Lahore, Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad.

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