Indus Civilization – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro GK
2600BC to 1750BC
- Geographic Extent
- Town Planning
- Agriculture and crops
- Crafts and Arts
- End or Decline
John Marshal Was the first scholar to use the term ‘Indus Civilization‘. It is an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus river which is now in Pakistan. Sir Mortimer Wheeler stipulated in 1968 that Harappan civilization seem to be appeared fully developed from its earliest phase and had little in common with the people who lived in these areas in the preceding period.
The important Harappan sites are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhudaro, Banawali and Dholavira.
Indus civilization was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and northern Maharashtra.
Harappa is situated along the Ravi river in the district of Montgomery of Punjab province now in Pakistan. Mohenjo-Daro is situated along Indus river at the Larkana district of Sindh province in Pakistan. The capital city of Indus civilization was Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
Metal Used in Harappa Civilization:
The main metals used by the people are Bronze, Silver, Gold Copper, etc. Iron was not known to the people of this civilization.
Urbanization is the most remarkable and major characteristics of this civilization. People used burnt-bricks of good quality as the main building material. Usually, towns or cities were laid out in a parallelogram in form. The most striking structure was the ‘Great Birth‘ at Mohenjo-Daro.
The advance drainage system was found here. The towns were divided into two parts, upper part of the citadel and lower part. One of the biggest structures found in Mohenjo-Daro is a granary which was 46 meters long width and 15.5m breadth. Indus civilization was primarily urban.
Agriculture and crops:
Main stock breeding animals were sheep, goats, humped cattle, buffalo, elephant, bull, etc. The horse was probably not known to the Harappan.
Trade: No metallic coin is used, but only barter has been the normal method of exchange of goods. The weight and length measurement system were excellent. Lothal was an ancient port in Indus civilization.
People exports various goods and products such as agricultural products, cotton goods, Ivory products, terracotta figurines, etc. Whats they import were copper from South India, gold from South India and Afghanistan, Silver from Afghanistan and Iran, Lapis Lazuli, Jade, amethyst, turquoise, etc. Every merchant probably had sealed.
Crafts and Arts:
A wide range of occupations such as pottery-making, bead-making, seal-making, etc was observed. Terracotta manufacturing was very famous. Metalworking was highly skilled.
The culture was belonging to the bronze age, therefore various crafts were made of bronze such as a famous dancing girl (devadasi).
The lord of animals, ‘Pashupati Mahadeva’ was found on the seal which was a male deity. Pipal tree, bull, pigeon, etc. were worshiped. They believed in rebirth system and life after death. That’s why they put ornaments, household things, etc in the grave with the bodies. They did not worship their god in the temple, the idea of their religion is formed from the statues and figurines found.
End or Decline:
Though it has lasted 1000 years there is no clear evidence of how the civilization ended up. There are many possible theories such as inversion of Aryans, floods, society dis-balanced, etc by which the big Indus civilization put into the end.
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