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Indus Civilization – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro GK

Indus Civilization – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro GK

2600BC To 1750BC

  1. Discovery
  2. Geographic Extent
  3. Town Planning
  4. Agriculture and crops
  5. Animals
  6. Crafts and Arts
  7. Science
  8. Religion
  9. Politics
  10. End or Decline

John Marshal Was the first scholar to use the term ‘Indus Civilization‘. It is an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus river which is now in Pakistan. Sir Mortimes Wheeler stipulated in 1968 that Harappan civilization seem to be appeared fully developed from its earliest phase and had little in common with the people who lived in these areas in the preceding period.

The important Harappan sites are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhudaro, Banawali and Dholavira.


Dayaram Sahani in 1921 discovered Harappa Civilization. Rakhal Das Banerjee discover Mohenjo-Daro in 1922.

Geographic Extent:

Indus civilization was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and northern Maharashtra.

Harappa is situated along Ravi river in the district of Montgomery of Punjab province now in Pakistan. Mohenjo-Daro is situated along Indus river at larkana district of sindh province in Pakistan. The capital city of Indus civilization was Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

Metal Used in Harappa Civilization:

The main metal used by the people are Bronze, Silver, Gold Copper etc. Iron were not known to the people of this civilization.

Town Planning:

Urbanization is the most remarkable and major characteristics of this civilization. People used burnt-bricks of good quality as the main building material. Usually, towns or cities were laid out in a parallelogram in form. The most striking structure was the ‘Great Birth‘ at Mohenjo-Daro.

Advance drainage system were found here. The towns were divided into two parts, upper part of citadel and lower part. One of the biggest structure found in Mohenjo-Daro is a granary which was 46 meters long width and 15.5m breadth. Indus civilization was primarily urban.

Agriculture and crops:

The main cultivated corps were wheat, barley, peas dates mustered cotton etc. Rice was only grown in Lothal and Rangpur in Gujarat.


Main stock breeding animals were sheep, goats, humped cattle, buffalo, elephant, bull etc. The horse was probably not known to the Harappan.

Trade: No metallic coin is used, but only barter have been the normal method of exchange of goods. Weight and length measurement system were excellent. Lothal was an ancient port in Indus civilization.

People exports various goods and products such as agricultural products, cotton goods, Ivory products, terracotta figurines etc. Whats they import were copper from South India, gold from South India and Afghanistan, Silver from Afghanistan and Iran, Lapis Lazuli, Jade, amethyst, turquoise etc. Every merchant probably had seal.

Crafts and Arts:

Wide range of occupation such as pottery-making, bead-making, seal-making etc were observed. Terracotta manufacturing was very famous. Metal working was highly skilled.

The culture was belonging to the bronze age, therefore various crafts were made of bronze such as famous dancing girl (devdasi).


Bead-making, constructing well-planed building,art long-lasting painting etc advance procedures indicate that Harappan were aware of science.


The lord of animals, ‘Pashupati Mahadeva’ was found on the seal which was male deity. Pipal tree, bull, pigeon etc. were worshiped. They believed in rebirth system and life after death. That’s why they put ornaments, household things etc in the grave with the bodies. They did not worship their god in temple, the idea of their religion is formed from the statues and figurines found.


There is no clear-cut evidence that what short of political organization Harappan had.

End or Decline:

Though it was lasted 1000 years there are no clear evidence of how the civilization ended up. There are many possible theories such as inversion of Aryans, floods, society dis-balanced etc by which the big Indus civilization put into the end.

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