Modern Indian History Advent of Europeans in India of Europeans > GK
|East India Company||Established||Head Quarter|
|English||1600|| Surat (1608 – 1687),
Bombay ( 1687)
Bengal (up to 1700)
Calcutta (from 1700)
|Dutch||1602|| Pulicut (Up to 1690)
Hugli in Bengal (1655)
|Danish||1616||Serampur in Bengal (1675 – 1845)|
Vasco-da-Gama came to India in 1498. He landed at Calicut and received by Zamorin, a Hindu ruler of Calicut. He was successful to established a sea route from India to Europe. Also this route led to establishment of trading station in the India. Therefor the Portuguese had a monopoly of the highly profitable eastern trade for nearly a century. Portuguese had early capital at Cochin, later Goa replaced it.
Francisco de Almeida was the first governor of Portuguese east India company. He was successful to capture Goa from Bijapur ruler. They lost Hugli in 1631 due to a fight with Shajahan.
In 1595, the first fleet to the east was sent from Holland. After that the Dutch east India Company was formed in 1602 with power to make war, acquire territories, fortresses building and conclude treaties. They were remain successful to make center at Pulicat in 1690 and after that Negapatam.
An English East India Company to trade with Eastern country India formed in 1600. John Mildenhall, who was a merchant adventurer, was the first English man who proposed of trade with India in 1599. After that Captain William Hawkins want to open a factory at Surat under the reign of Jahangir, but he failed. Later Jahangir issued to open a Farman to the English. After that Sir Thomas Roe came to India and set up a permanent factory in Surat under the reign of Jahangir in 1613.
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Three village Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata were acquired by British East India company and they established factories in these villages. Later these villages grew into city of Calcutta. They develop a pattern of trade. Their main articles were cotton and cotton made products. The company fortified the Calcutta factory int fort William in 1696.
Colbert formed the French East India Company in 1664. Francois Caron Established first French factory at 1668 in Surat. Later they also built another factories at Masuliputam in 1669. The arrival of Dupleix in 1742 started of Anglo-French conflict and as a result French were defeated in India.
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First Anglo-French war – 1746 to 1748. French defeated. Aix-La-chapelle ended the war.
Second Anglo-French war – from 1749 to 1754. Treaty of Pondicherry ended the war.
Third Anglo-French war – From 1758 to 1763. It was a decisive defeat of French. Paris treaty ended this war in India. Pondicherry was returned to the French.