# Gravitational Force and Gravity

**Contents**

* Gravitation* related General Knowledge is one of the most important topics for various types of competitive examinations such as IAS, UPSC, Railway, Banking, SSC, CGL, CHSL, MTS, etc. Therefore we have brought to you the proper and appropriate knowledge and concept related

**Physics**by chapter wise.

In this topic we are going to discuss Gravitation force, Newton’s Law of Gravitation, Center of mass concept, gravity, and Gravitational Potential energy.

## Newton’s Law of Gravitation, Gravitational Force:

Definition of Gravitational Force: Every objects in this universe attract each other by a force called gravitation force.

Any two objects in this universe attract each other along a line joining between them. The magnitude of this force of attraction depends on the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Let us consider two masses, m_{1} and m_{2} are separated at a distance *r*. According to *Newton’s law of Gravitation* if * F* is the force between these two objects, then, –

* F ∞ m_{1}×m_{2}* Where r is constant;

* F ∞ 1/r^{2} *where

*m*are constant;

_{1}, m_{2}Combining these two rule we get

**F** ∞ m_{1}×m_{2}/r^{2}

`or, `**F = G×m**_{1}m_{2}/r^{2}

Where G is known as *Universal Gravitational Constant*. The above equation is the mathematical form of *Newton’s Law of Gravitation*.

### Value of Universal Gravitational Constant:

From Newton’s Law of Gravitation, we get

`G = F × r`^{2} / (m_{1} × m_{2});

From the above equation, we see that if each masses of two bodies *m _{1}* and

*m*is 1 kg and they are kept at a distance of 1 meter, then the amount of force by which they attract each other is the

_{2}*Universal Gravitational Constant*. It is denoted by ‘

*‘. Its unit is*

**G****Nm**

^{2}/kg^{2}The absolute value of Universal Gravitational Constant is **6.67×10 ^{-10} Nm^{2}/kg^{2}**. This amount of force is too small that we can not feel. Gravitational force is always directed towards the center of masses of the bodies. That’s why it is a vector quantity.

### The dimension of *G* :

The dimension of Universal Gravitational Constant is **[M ^{-1}L^{3}T^{-2}]**.

### Gravitational Attraction for Extended Body:

How to calculate the force of attraction for extended bodies or irregular-shaped bodies? Now, look out the following problem. Object-A and object-B are irregular shaped. While calculating the gravitation force we need to have the distance between them. But how can we obtain the distance? Since they are not point masses.

The problem is solved by considering their center of masses or center of gravity. Every object in the universe has a particular point where all the mass is considered to be concentrated. This point is called the ‘*Centre of Mass*‘. For regular shaped and homogeneous objects such as a sphere, the center of mass lies in its center.

## Gravity :

The gravitational force by which our Earth attracts an object or body towards its center is known as gravity. Due to this gravity, each object on the earth’s surface falls on earth.

### Gravitational Acceleration :

We know that when a body moves due to the application of force, acceleration is always created on it. How much acceleration will be created? The answer is obtained from the equation –

Force = Mass * Acceleration;

This concept is also applicable to gravity. Thus when Earth attracts an object by its gravity, an acceleration produced on the object. This acceleration is known as ‘*Gravitational Acceleration*‘ and it is denoted by ‘** g**‘. The value of ‘

*‘ is*

**g***9.8 m/s*. It depends on the shape, size, and mass of the body. Gravitational acceleration is a vector quantity.

^{2}Variation of gravitational acceleration on the earth’s surface.

Though the value of gravitational acceleration is considered as constant, it is not. It varies on the earth surface.

- Its value is maximum at the two poles of the earth. Why? Because the linear velocity of the surface of the pole is less than any other place on the Earth.
- The value of g is minimum at the equator. Why? Because the linear velocity of the surface of the earth is maximum.
- The value of g decreases as the height from the earth’s surface increases.
- The value of g also decreases as we go inside the earth.

If the angular velocity of the earth becomes seventeen times its present value, every object on the equator well become weightless. Why? Because when angular velocity increases its centrifugal force also increases. This centrifugal force is always opposite to gravity.

## Gravitational Potential:

The gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is measured by the amount of work done in bringing a unit mass form infinity to that point.

It is a *scalar quantity* and generally, it is denoted by V. In the gravitational field if you want to move an object from point A to point B, then it required some energy. If you move the object along the direction of the field, the energy is negative. And the energy is positive if you move an object opposite to the direction of gravitational force.

If you move an object from infinite to some point in the field the potential is given by the following formula.-

V = -Gm/r, where m is the mass of the object.

### Potential energy of Earth:

The gravitational potential energy or P.E of Earth is measured by the height you lift an object multiplied by its mass and gravitational acceleration i.e. –

Gravitational Potential energy of Earth W -= mgh;

The unit of P.E. is Joul in SI system and erg in c.g.s system.