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GK> Revolt of 1857 – Sepoy Mutiny – Study Notes [PDF]


Revolt of 1857 Important Points

Sepoy mutiny started on 10th May 1857 in the cantonment of Meerut.


What were the causes of Sepoy Mutiny or Revolt of 1857?

Political Causes: Nana Sahib alias Dhondu Pant was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. The vigorous application of the doctrine of lapse was responsible for participation of Rani of Jhansi and Nana Sahib.

Economic Causes: The new land revenue system ruined many peasant proprietors who lost their lands to traders and moneylenders. Heavy taxation, forcibly evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of  traditional handicrafts that hit peasants and artisans.

Military causes: The cartridge of the Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The Sepoy (both Hindu and Muslim) were forced to bite bullets with their teeth. That hurts the sentiments of both religions. Therefore the Sepoy protested.

Socio-religious causes: Abolition of Sati practices, widow remarriage act hurt the sentiments of orthodox and conservative people of India.

Leaders of Sepoy mutiny or Revolt of 1857:

The Sepoy reached at the Red Fort on 11th May. The Sepoy chooses Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader.

  • At Kanpur – Nana Sahib
  • At Jhansi – Rani Lazmi Bai
  • Arrah in Bihar – Kunwar Singh
  • Awadh at Lucknow – Birjis Qadr

# Nana Sahib was the successor to Peshwa Baji Rao II.

# Birjis Qadr was some of Nawab Wajib Ali Shah.

# Wajid Ali Shah was Nawab of Awadh Shah Mal lead in Pagana Barout in Uttar Pradesh.

# Gonoo was a tribal cultivator of Singhbhum in Cholangpur, he lead the kol tribal against British.

Repression by the British:

# The British attempting to recover Delhi in June 1857 and captured it at the end of September.

# In Sepoy mutiny Governor General was lord Canning. Rani Jhansi killed in Battle in June, 1858.

# Mangal Pandey was hanged on 29th March 1857 because of attacking his officers in Barrackpur.

# Birjis Qadir’s mother Begum Hazrat Mahal took a crucial part in the rebel Awadh against the Britsh.

# Tantia Tope, the general of Nana Sahib fought the British along with Rani Laxmi Bai.

# Bahadur Shah Zafar was sentenced to life imprisonment. British killed his son in front of him. Bahadur Shah Zafar and his wife Begum Zinat Mahal were sent to prison in Rangoon in October, 1858.

# After repression of the Sepoy mutiny the British parliament passed a new act in 1858 and transferred the powers of the East India Company to the British Crown.

# After that the Governor General of India was given the title of Viceroy.

# Last Governor General and First viceroy was lord Canning.

# The Sikhs in Punjab and North-West frontier province supported the British.

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