Partition of Bengal 1905 Facts and General Knowledge
Partition of Bengal 1905 is also known as Banga Vanga Andolon in India. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the partition of Bengal started to create the strong national movement of the extremists in India.
What was the reason behind the partition of Bengal 1905?
Causes Shown by British:
The geographical area of Bengal was very large and due to this, for British, it was going to be difficult to control throughout the Bengal easily.
At that time there were approximately 55 million people in greater Bengal out of them 18 million were Bengali speaking people and rest 37 million were Hindi ( or Bihari) and Oriya speaking people. So British govt wanted to split Bengal into two-part. One is East Bengal (Bengal and Assam) with muslim populated region and another part is Western Bengal (Bihar Odisha and a small part of Bengal) with Hindu.
At this time a large number of experienced political leaders were Presented in Bengal who had the capacity to influence and guide political agitation. And they were going to be more popular and stronger against the British govt in India. This was uncomfortable for the British to rule and loot effectively from India.
But the British govt showed a reason that this partition will help to develop the eastern region economically and culturally. Because in the eastern part, Muslims were in the majority. They thought that they can take economical advantages against Hindu.
That’s why the British government wanted to divide the Bengal.
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Actual Causes of Lord Curzon behind the partition of Bengal:
Actually, these were not the original reason behind the partition of Bengal 1905. Lord Curzon planned to divide Bengal for weakening British critics and opposition political power in Bengal.
Some people also consider that to suppress the nationalist and as well as the unity of Bengali people, British govt forcefully wanted to divide the Bengal.
Lord Curzon’s actual motive was political and not administrative. He wanted to destroy the good relation of Hindu with the minority Muslim community (I.e in the religious ground).
Also tried to suppress or inhibit the influence of educated middle-class person (and congress) to uneducated, poor Hindu and Muslim. And for this Lord Curzon adopted the idea of “divide and rule
Implementation the idea of partition of Bengal
In the year 1874, Assam was separated from Bengal as a distinct region.
The British government planned to separate Bengal on 19th July 1905.
In this year (1905) 16th October, the plan of partition of Bengal was officially implemented.
Effects of Partition of Bengal:
Boycott and the swadeshi movement were arisen due to this proposal of the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
At the end of this movement, the real form of extremism had appeared as a model of modern Indian national movement.
The educated Indian as well as INC (Indian National Congress) oppose the matter and tried to push an effort to enlarge the national movement of India in the right direction.
Reunion of Bengal
Due to huge political protest such as Swadeshi and boycott movement throughout India. These two parts of Bengal is reunited in 1911
Because of gigantic political challenges, for example, Swadeshi and boycott movement throughout India, these two parts of Bengal are brought together in 1911. Be that as it may, the division of Bengal made based on language instead of religious ground.
Important facts to Remember regarding Bengal partition:
If you are preparing for any kind of competitive examinations like IAS, UPSC, SSC, CGL, MTS, Railway group C D exams Defence, Police, then you should remember these important points about the partition of Bengal in 1905.
|⇒ The government reported the thought for the partition of Bengal in January 1904.|
|⇒ The thought was restricted by Henry John Stedman Cotton, Chief Commissioner of Assam.|
|⇒ Partition of Bengal proceeded and implemented officially on October 16, 1905, by Viceroy Lord Curzon.|
|⇒ Mahatma Gandhi was not the chief architect of the Swadeshi Movement caused by the partition of Bengal.|
|⇒ At this time the viceroy of India was Lord Minto.|
|⇒ On 12 December 1911, the partition of Bengal was revoked.|
|⇒ Hardinge II was the viceroy of Bengal when the Bengal partition was canceled.|
|⇒ Gopal Krishna was the president of INC during this time.|