Cytology Related Objective Question Answer
Important Points on Cytology with questions and answers. Dear aspirants, I have updated all the important and selective points related to Cell. So keep reading regularly and prepared for your upcoming competitive exams like SSC, CGL, MTS, CHSL, Railway Group-D, Banking, IAS, UPSC, WBCS, etc..
Q 1 The outermost thick dead protective layer of plant and bacterial cell are called as –
A: cell wall.
B: Cell Membrance
C: Cell Layer
D: Cell barrier
Q 2 The bacterial cell wall is mainly composed of ________.
⇒Most of the plant cell wall is composed of – cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, pectin, etc.
Q3 Plasmodesmata are found in –
A: cell wall.
D: Cell membrance
Q4 Outermost thin living protective layer of animal cell is __________.
A: cell membrane/plasma membrane.
B cell wall
C: Cell barrier
D Cell Layer
cell membrane/plasma membrane
⇒ The cell membrane is mainly composed of protein and lipid.
⇒ The unit membrane theory was proposed by Robertson. The Fluid Mosaic model was proposed by Singer and Nicolson.
Q: What is Endocytosis?
A: Engulfment of solid particles into a cell is known as Endocytosis.
Q: What is pinocytosis?
A: The engulfment of liquid particles into a cell is known as pinocytosis.
Q: What is the nature of the cell membrane?
A: The cell membrane is selectively permeable or semi-permeable.
Q: Who coined the term Protoplasm?
⇒ Protoplasm is also called – ‘Physical basis of life‘ (called by Huxley).
⇒ What is the nature of protoplasm?
A: Protoplasm is colloidal.
⇒ What is cytoplasm?
A: Protoplasm without a nucleus.
⇒ Who discovered the nucleus?
A: Robert Brown.
⇒ The nucleus is also called as – Brain of a cell / controlling tower of a cell.
⇒ Nucleus less cell – Mature Red Blood Cell or R.B.C for an animal (except camel). Sieve tube for the plant.
⇒ Cell with a well-organized nucleus is called as – Eukaryotic Cell (Both DNA and RNA present)
⇒ Cell with an ill-organized nucleus is called a Prokaryotic cell (only RNA present).
⇒ Nucleo-plasm is also called as – karyolymph.
⇒ The nucleolus is also called – Ribosome.
⇒ Nuclear reticulum is actually is – Chromosome.
⇒ The nucleus of a bacterial cell is called as – Nucleoid / Genophore.
⇒ The nucleus of an egg cell is known as – pronucleus.
# Ribosome :
Q: Who discovered the ribosome?
⇒ The ribosome is also called a – protein factory of the cell.
⇒ The smallest cellular organelle of cell is – Ribosome.
Q: Which kind of ribosome is found in a prokaryotic cell?
A: The 70S (30S & 50S)
Q: What is cytology?
A: Study to form, structure and composition of the cell are called cytology.
Q: Who is known as the father of cytology?
A: Robert Hooke
Q: What is a cell?
A: A cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms.
Q: Who discovered the cell?
A: Robert Hook (1665).
⇒ Microscopes are of three types.
- Simple Microscopes
- Compound microscopes
- Electron microscopes.
Q: Which is the smallest cell?
A: Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
Q: Which is the largest cell?
A: Egg of Ostrich.
Q: Which is the Longest human cell
A: Nerve cell
Q: Which is the smallest human cell?
Q: Which is longest unicellular plant cell
⇒ The longest multi-cellular plant cell is Fiber of Ramie.
⇒ Cell theory was largely put forward by Schleiden and Schwann (1839)
⇒ Cell theory state that bodies of all organism are made up of cells.
⇒ An exception of cell theory is – Virus.
⇒ Modern cell theory was proposed by R. Virchow.
Q: What are plasmodesmata?
A: A cytoplasmic bridge between adjacent plant cell which maintain the connectivity between them.
# Plastid :
⇒ Plastid is mainly found in – Plant cells.
⇒ The term plastid was coined by – Schimper.
⇒ Plastid with chlorophyll or green pigment – chloroplast.
⇒ A chloroplast is related to photosynthesis.
⇒ Chloroplast consists of – double membrane, Thylakoid or grana, and stroma.
⇒ A chloroplast is also called – kitchen of the cell and sugar factory of the cell.
⇒ The largest cellular organelle of a cell is – chloroplast.
⇒ Plastid with pigment rather than green – chromoplastid.
⇒ Chromoplastid is related to pollination.
⇒ Plastid without pigment is called – Leucoplast.
Q: What is the use of leucoplast?
⇒ Mitochondria were observed by – Kolliker.
⇒ Mitochondria were discovered by – Altmann.
⇒ The term Mitochondria was coined by – Benta.
⇒ Mitochondria consists of or double membrane, Cristae, oxysome and matrix.
⇒ Kreb’s cycle of respiration occurs in – mitochondria.
⇒ Mitochondria are also called – the powerhouse of the cell.
⇒ Mitochondria is not present in Red Blood Cell R.C.B
⇒ Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in – Mitochondria.
⇒ Mitochondria are also called as
- a cell within a cell
- Semi-autonomous cellular organelle.
⇒ Bacterial respiration occurs in mesosome.
# Lysosome :
⇒ Lysosome was discovered by = C.D Duve.
Q: Which enzyme is found in Lysosome?
A: Hydrolytic enzyme.
⇒ A lysosome is also called – Suicidal bag of cell/atom bomb of a cell.
Q: By which process lysosome destroy a cell?
⇒ Lysosome originates from- Golgi bodies.
Q: Who discovered peroxisome?
⇒ Peroxisome originates from- Golgi Body.
Q: Which enzyme is found in peroxisome?
A: oxidative enzyme.
⇒ The peroxisome is also called as – Safety valve of a cell.
# Endoplasmic Reticulum :
⇒ It is discovered by Porter. It is present in all cells except RBC and sperm cells.
⇒ There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum,
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Granular). It is involved in protein synthesis.
- Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum ( Agranular). It is involved in lipid and steroid synthesis.
⇒ Vacuoles are present in the cytoplasm. It is covered by a single membrane.
⇒ The watery fluid of vacuoles is called cell sap.
Q: By which vacuoles are surrounded?
# Golgi Apparatus :
⇒ It is discovered by Camillo Golgi.
# Centrosome :
⇒ It is consists of centroid and sentrosphare. The formation of spindle fibre is the main function of the centrosome.
⇒ Basal bodies: it is also called blepharoplasty or kinetosome. Cilia and flagella are originated from a basal body. Its function is for locomotion.
Microtubules: Microtubules composed of Tubulin Protein. It helps in spindle fiber formation in plant cells.
⇒ Cell inclusion: It is found in the cytoplasm. Silica, oil, CaCO3 Crystal, Calcium Oxalate crystal and some reserve food like starch, glycogen, etc. It is found in cell inclusion.