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Cytology Related Question Answer

GK> Cytology – Biology Question Answer mcq + notes [PDF]


Cytology Related Objective Question Answer

Important Points on Cytology with questions and answers. Dear aspirants, I have updated all the important and selective points related to Cell. So keep reading regularly and prepared for your upcoming competitive exams like SSC, CGL, MTS, CHSL, Railway Group-D, Banking, IAS, UPSC, WBCS, etc..

In these topics, I have covered by selecting some important objective questions of cell organelles such as Ribosome, Plastid, Lysosome, Peroxisome, Mitochondria, Vacuoles, Golgi Body and Centrosome.

Read: Chromosome – Important Points + GK Notes [PDF]

Q 1 The outermost thick dead protective layer of plant and bacterial cell are called as –

A: cell wall.

B: Cell Membrance

C: Cell Layer

D: Cell barrier


A:_Cell Wall

Q 2 The bacterial cell wall is mainly composed of ________.

A: Glycoprotein

B: peptidoglycan

C: glycan

D: muropeptides



Most of the plant cell wall is composed of – cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, pectin, etc.

Q3 Plasmodesmata are found in –

A: cell wall.

B: Cytoplasm

C: Nucleus

D: Cell membrance


Cell membrance

Q4 Outermost thin living protective layer of animal cell is __________.

A: cell membrane/plasma membrane.

B cell wall

C: Cell barrier

D Cell Layer


cell membrane/plasma membrane

The cell membrane is mainly composed of protein and lipid.

The unit membrane theory was proposed by Robertson. The Fluid Mosaic model was proposed by Singer and Nicolson.

Q: What is Endocytosis?

A: Engulfment of solid particles into a cell is known as Endocytosis.

Q: What is pinocytosis?

A: The engulfment of liquid particles into a cell is known as pinocytosis.

Q: What is the nature of the cell membrane?

A: The cell membrane is selectively permeable or semi-permeable.

Q: Who coined the term Protoplasm?

A: Purkinje

Protoplasm is also called – ‘Physical basis of life‘ (called by Huxley).

What is the nature of protoplasm?

A: Protoplasm is colloidal.

What is cytoplasm?

A: Protoplasm without a nucleus.

Who discovered the nucleus?

A: Robert Brown.

The nucleus is also called as – Brain of a cell / controlling tower of a cell.

Nucleus less cell – Mature Red Blood Cell or R.B.C for an animal (except camel). Sieve tube for the plant.

Cell with a well-organized nucleus is called as – Eukaryotic Cell (Both DNA and RNA present)

Cell with an ill-organized nucleus is called a Prokaryotic cell (only RNA present).

Nucleo-plasm is also called as – karyolymph.

The nucleolus is also called – Ribosome.

Nuclear reticulum is actually is – Chromosome.

The nucleus of a bacterial cell is called as – Nucleoid / Genophore.

The nucleus of an egg cell is known as – pronucleus.

The nucleus of a diploid somatic cell is called as – Amphi Nucleus.

# Ribosome :

Q: Who discovered the ribosome?

A: Palade.

The ribosome is also called a – protein factory of the cell.

The smallest cellular organelle of cell is – Ribosome.

Q: Which kind of ribosome is found in a prokaryotic cell?

A: The 70S (30S & 50S)

Q: What is cytology?

A: Study to form, structure and composition of the cell are called cytology.

Q: Who is known as the father of cytology?

A: Robert Hooke

Q: What is a cell?

A: A cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms.

Q: Who discovered the cell?

A: Robert Hook (1665).

Microscopes are of three types.

  • Simple Microscopes
  • Compound microscopes
  • Electron microscopes.

Q: Which is the smallest cell?

A: Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

Q: Which is the largest cell?

A: Egg of Ostrich.

Q: Which is the Longest human cell

A: Nerve cell

Q: Which is the smallest human cell?

A: Platelets.

Q: Which is longest unicellular plant cell

A: Acetabularia.

The longest multi-cellular plant cell is Fiber of Ramie.

Cell theory was largely put forward by Schleiden and Schwann (1839)

Cell theory state that bodies of all organism are made up of cells.

An exception of cell theory is – Virus.

Modern cell theory was proposed by R. Virchow.

Q: What are plasmodesmata?

A: A cytoplasmic bridge between adjacent plant cell which maintain the connectivity between them.


The brown algae cell wall is mainly composed of: Alginic acid, a common polysaccharide.

# Plastid :

Plastid is mainly found in – Plant cells.

The term plastid was coined by – Schimper.

Plastid with chlorophyll or green pigment – chloroplast.

A chloroplast is related to photosynthesis.

Chloroplast consists of – double membrane, Thylakoid or grana, and stroma.

A chloroplast is also called – kitchen of the cell and sugar factory of the cell.

The largest cellular organelle of a cell is – chloroplast.

Plastid with pigment rather than green – chromoplastid.

Chromoplastid is related to pollination.

Plastid without pigment is called – Leucoplast.

Q: What is the use of leucoplast?

A: Storing food.

# Mitochondria

Mitochondria were observed by – Kolliker.

Mitochondria were discovered by – Altmann.

The term Mitochondria was coined by – Benta.

Mitochondria consists of or double membrane, Cristae, oxysome and matrix.

Kreb’s cycle of respiration occurs in – mitochondria.

Mitochondria are also called – the powerhouse of the cell.

Mitochondria is not present in Red Blood Cell R.C.B

Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in – Mitochondria.

Mitochondria are also called as

  • a cell within a cell
  • Semi-autonomous cellular organelle.

Bacterial respiration occurs in mesosome.

Mesosome is also called as – bacterial mitochondria.

# Lysosome :

Lysosome was discovered by = C.D Duve.

Q: Which enzyme is found in Lysosome?

A: Hydrolytic enzyme.

A lysosome is also called – Suicidal bag of cell/atom bomb of a cell.

Q: By which process lysosome destroy a cell?

A: Phagocytosis.

Lysosome originates from- Golgi bodies.

Lysosome of a plant cell is called – Sphaerosome.

# Peroxisome

Q: Who discovered peroxisome?

C.D. Duve.

Peroxisome originates from- Golgi Body.

Q: Which enzyme is found in peroxisome?

A: oxidative enzyme.

The peroxisome is also called as – Safety valve of a cell.

# Endoplasmic Reticulum :

It is discovered by Porter. It is present in all cells except RBC and sperm cells.

There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum,

  1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Granular). It is involved in protein synthesis.
  2. Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum ( Agranular). It is involved in lipid and steroid synthesis.

# Vacuoles

Vacuoles are present in the cytoplasm. It is covered by a single membrane.

The watery fluid of vacuoles is called cell sap.

Q: By which vacuoles are surrounded?

A: Tonoplast.

Vacuoles are called the storehouse of cell sap pigments, waste products, useful minerals, and salts.

# Golgi Apparatus :

It is discovered by Camillo Golgi.

It is a sac-like structure that frequently includes cisternae, vesicles, and vacuoles. When it is present in a plant called dictyosome. It is also called as traffic police of the cell.

# Centrosome :

It is consists of centroid and sentrosphare. The formation of spindle fibre is the main function of the centrosome.

Basal bodies: it is also called blepharoplasty or kinetosome. Cilia and flagella are originated from a basal body. Its function is for locomotion.

Microtubules: Microtubules composed of Tubulin Protein. It helps in spindle fiber formation in plant cells.

Cell inclusion: It is found in the cytoplasm. Silica, oil, CaCO3 Crystal, Calcium Oxalate crystal and some reserve food like starch, glycogen, etc. It is found in cell inclusion.

Read: Cell Cycle and Cell Division – Complete Biology GK Notes [pdf]

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