British Conquest of Bengal Mysore Punjab In India
The disintegration of Mughal Empire and the dispatch of forces to India in 1740s to fight one another by the British and French on a large scale, changed the scene and made possible to acquisition of British empire in India. The British made full use of the new resources and the French were decisively defeated in the Battle of Nandiwash in 1760. As a result, the dream of the French of an empire in India was totally destroyed.
British Conquest of Bengal:
In Bengal British were motivated by the desire to control the resources of rich province. That why the East India company enjoyed great privileges in Bengal on the basis of Farman granted by Mughal emperor in 1717. Therefore, the Farman was the main sources of rising tension between company and the kings (Nawabs) of Bengal.
Murshid Quali Khan was appointed as the governor (Subedar) by Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar in 1719. He moved his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad. His son Sujauddin was granted the Governor of Bihar.
The deputy governor Alivarti Khan murdered Sarfaraj Khan, son of Sujauddin and prevented the English and French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta
Siraj-ud-daula, grandson of Alivarti Khan sieged the English factory at Kasimbazar, but Robert Clive recovered Calcutta.
The Battle of Palassey fought between Sirajuddaula and British in 1757. In this battle, major part of the Nawab’s army led by Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh did not take part. As a result, Siraj-ud-daula was defeated and put to death.
Once the company had won their victory in Palassey, they were granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal Bihar and Orissa.
The battle of Palassey had great political influence as it laid the foundation of the British empire in India.”
Mir Quasim, the son of Mir Jafar shifted his capital from Murshidabed to Munger. At that time, British started to misuse the Dastak i.e. free duty passes.
In the battle of Buxar on October 22, 1764, the three alliance Mir Quasim, Sujauddaula and Shah Alam II were defeated by Munro, the major of British forces.
The importance of the battle of Buxer lay in the fact that not only the kings of Bengal but the emperor of India was also defeated.
As a result, the Dual Government of Bengal started in 1765. According to this system, the company acquired the real power and both Diwani and Nizamat rights from the Nawab of Bengal. Warren Hasting ended this system in 1772.
British Conquest of Mysore:
After acquiring the revenue collection (Diwani) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, the company settled down to consolidate their gains. In Mysore, Haidar Ali established a modern arsenal in Dindigul with the help of French. At that time British were involved in a war with Mysore which was very powerful state under Haidar Ali.
First Anglo-Mysore war was fought between Haidar Ali and British in between 1766 to 1769. British were defeated. Result: The treaty of Madras signed.
Second Anglo-Mysore war was also taking place in between 1780 to 1784. Warren Hastings from company first attack “Mahe” port of French. Haider Ali was defeated and dies during this war. Tipu Sultan, Son of Hiadar Ali continued the second Anglo-Mysore war till 1784. At the end of this war treaty of Mangalore was signed in 1784.
Third Anglo-Mysore war was fought between British and Maratha. In this war Tipu defeated by Cornwallis and half of his territory was ceded.
Forth Anglo-Mysore war fought between lord Wellesley and Tipu Sultan. Tipu defeated and died during this war.
Read More : Post-Mauryan, Pre-Gupta Period – GK
British Conquest of Punjab:
By the efforts of Guru Gobind Singh who was the 10th and the last Guru of Sikh, created a strong military power. Later Maharaja Ranjit Singh made himself a Master of Punjab.
He also occupied Lahore, Amritsar, Ludhiana Multan, Kashmir and built a strong state. This strong Sikh power was broken by British after the death of Ranjit Singh.
First Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1845. Sikhs were defeated and Sir Henry Lawrence became the first president.
Second Anglo-Sikh war was fought in 1844 between Sikhs and Dalhousie. Sikhs were defeated.