Swadeshi and Boycott Movement General Knowledge
Introduction of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement: Lord Curzon appeared in Indian politics during the national movement of India. Since he came to India, the sensitive issues in India and Indians became the challenging problem of his administration. The partition of Bengal made due to his aggressive policy. In the protest of the division of Bengal, an incursive movement of the entire Bengal was developed. This is known as the Swadeshi movement. At the beginning of the movement, Surendranath Banerjee, and later took over the responsibility of Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
The Effects partition of Bengal and Swadeshi & boycott movement:
In 1905 (20 July), when Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal with the intention of imperialism, a severe reaction was made at the whole of Bengal. There were demands for cancellation of criticism of this decision in various sessions.
Under the leadership of Surendranath Bandopadhyay, a protective movement had begun against the partition of Bengal. On 7 August 1905, a huge public meeting at Kolkata took a decision to boycott British products unanimously.
Swadeshi Movement had expended to Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Deccan with the efforts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, and other nationalists.
Boycotting the foreign goods was expended in the major cities of India. A large number of foreign goods such as salt, cloths, wine, etc were damaged and fired due to the violation of Indian extremists. At that time Indians were established swadeshi factories. Prafulla Chandra Roy established “Bengal Chemical”. Chidambaram Pillai built indigenous Ship. Also, Sir Jamshedji Tata has set up a famous iron-steel plant in Jamshedpur.
Repression policy against Swadesi and Boycot movement by British:
The British government, frightened by the Swadeshi movement, adopted a repressive policy on banning the public meeting, punishing people, imprisonment, and took away the liberty of newspapers.
To prevent the student association from the movement, on October 10, 1905, the ‘Carlyle Circular’ was issued.
British ban the publication of sensitive newspaper such as “sandhya“, “Yugantar” etc.
British also tried to keep apart the Muslim community form this movement through discrimination policy.
The weakness of the swadeshi and boycott movement:
The public foundation of this movement was not strong.
The movement did not have a spiritual connection with the farmers and laborers.
The leaders of the movement did not emphasize raising communal harmony and solidarity that created communal riots in Bengal.
Results of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement:
Apparently, the swadeshi movement seems to be failed, it did not fail really.
Under the pressure of mass movement and public influence, the British government had withdrawn the decision of partition of Bengal in 1911.
As a result, the divided Bengal merge into a whole Bengal in 1911.
Some important points on Swadeshi and Boycott movement:
|⇒ The decision of Swadeshi and Boycott movement was taken on August 7, 1905, at the Calcutta Town Hall.|
|⇒ Swadeshi and Boycott movement had arisen to protest the division of Bengal.|
|⇒ Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India during the Swadeshi Movement.|
|⇒ Gopal Krishna Gokhale set up “Swadesh Bandhab Samiti” to proclaim the Swadeshi Movement.|
|⇒ Dadabhai Naoroji was president of INC at the time of the Swadeshi Movement.|
|⇒ Persons who involved in swadeshi and boycott movement are Surendranath Banerjee, BG Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghosh, Chidambaram Pillai|
|⇒ British government rejoins the parted Bengal in 1911.|
|⇒ Mahatma Gandhi was not a part of this movement.|